According to the United States Census Bureau, the Town has a total area of 11.0 square miles (28.6 km²), of which, 10.96 square miles (28.5 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (0.36%) is water.  


The preliminary estimate of January 1, 2016 population for the Town of Sheboygan is 7,435.  As of the census of 2010, there were 7,271 people, 2,148 households, and 1,724 families residing in the Town. The population density was 534.5 people per square mile (206.4/km²). There were 2,245 housing units at an average density of 204.3/sq mi (78.9/km²). The racial makeup of the Town was 96.12% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.47% Asian, 0.54% from other races, and 0.60% from two or more races. 1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 2,148 households out of which 38.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.9% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.7% were non-families. 15.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the Town the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 26.5% from 45 to 64, and 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 104.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.0 males.

The median income for a household in the Town was $60,846, and the median income for a family was $64,422. Males had a median income of $43,400 versus $27,124 for females. The per capita income for the Town was $25,492. About 0.8% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.2% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over.